WHO And Global Scientists Are Uncertain On Effect Of Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) On Health

Adverse effect of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) is one of the most controversial topics of present times that has remained unresolved even in September 2022. People and scientists are divided on the ill effects of EMFs generated by man-made actions and technologies. Further, there are also some gaps in the scientific study of impact of man-made EMFs upon health of humans, plants, animals, etc.

We are writing this article as an introductory discussion covering views of World health Organisation (WHO) as it is usually cited in various discussions. We would add more aspects of EMFs in our subsequent articles as the discussion of WHO is basic discussion and it has not clarified many crucial questions since 2019.

Further, the discussion of WHO is based on many assumptions that must be independently verified by latest scientific studies.

We do not accept or deny the observations of WTO in this article and our independent opinion would be shared in subsequent articles.

Let us start the discussion with a brief discussion about electric fields and magnetic fields. Electric fields are created by differences in voltage: the higher the voltage, the stronger will be the resultant field. Magnetic fields are created when electric current flows: the greater the current, the stronger the magnetic field. An electric field will exist even when there is no current flowing. If current does flow, the strength of the magnetic field will vary with power consumption but the electric field strength will be constant.

Besides natural sources the electromagnetic spectrum also includes fields generated by human-made sources. The electricity that comes out of every power socket has associated low frequency electromagnetic fields. And various kinds of higher frequency radiowaves are used to transmit information – whether via TV antennas, radio stations or mobile phone base stations.

One of the main characteristics which defines an electromagnetic field (EMF) is its frequency or its corresponding wavelength. Fields of different frequencies interact with the body in different ways. One can imagine electromagnetic waves as series of very regular waves that travel at an enormous speed, the speed of light. The frequency simply describes the number of oscillations or cycles per second, while the term wavelength describes the distance between one wave and the next.

Hence wavelength and frequency are inseparably intertwined: the higher the frequency the shorter the wavelength. The more waves you generate (higher frequency) the smaller will be the distance between them (shorter wavelength). It is very important to understand the difference between non-ionizing radiation and ionising radiation.

Wavelength and frequency determine another important characteristic of electromagnetic fields: Electromagnetic waves are carried by particles called quanta. Quanta of higher frequency (shorter wavelength) waves carry more energy than lower frequency (longer wavelength) fields.

Some electromagnetic waves carry so much energy per quantum that they have the ability to break bonds between molecules. In the electromagnetic spectrum, gamma rays given off by radioactive materials, cosmic rays and X-rays carry this property and are called ‘ionizing radiation’. Fields whose quanta are insufficient to break molecular bonds are called ‘non-ionizing radiation’.

It is an assumption that man-made sources of electromagnetic fields that form a major part of industrialised life – electricity, microwaves and radiofrequency fields – are found at the relatively long wavelength and low frequency end of the electromagnetic spectrum and their quanta are unable to break chemical bonds.

Magnetic fields arise from the motion of electric charges. The strength of the magnetic field is measured in amperes per meter (A/m); more commonly in electromagnetic field research, scientists specify a related quantity, the flux density (in microtesla, µT) instead. In contrast to electric fields, a magnetic field is only produced once a device is switched on and current flows. The higher the current, the greater the strength of the magnetic field.

Like electric fields, magnetic fields are strongest close to their origin and rapidly decrease at greater distances from the source. However, magnetic fields are not blocked by common materials such as the walls of buildings.

A static field does not vary over time. A direct current (DC) is an electric current flowing in one direction only. In any battery-powered appliance the current flows from the battery to the appliance and then back to the battery. It will create a static magnetic field. The earth’s magnetic field is also a static field. So is the magnetic field around a bar magnet which can be visualised by observing the pattern that is formed when iron filings are sprinkled around it.

In contrast, time-varying electromagnetic fields are produced by alternating currents (AC). Alternating currents reverse their direction at regular intervals. In most European countries electricity changes direction with a frequency of 50 cycles per second or 50 Hertz. Equally, the associated electromagnetic field changes its orientation 50 times every second. North American electricity has a frequency of 60 Hertz.

The time-varying electromagnetic fields produced by electrical appliances are an example of extremely low frequency (ELF) fields. ELF fields generally have frequencies up to 300 Hz. Other technologies produce intermediate frequency (IF) fields with frequencies from 300 Hz to 10 MHz and radiofrequency (RF) fields with frequencies of 10 MHz to 300 GHz.

The effects of electromagnetic fields on the human body depend not only on their field level but on their frequency and energy. Our electricity power supply and all appliances using electricity are the main sources of ELF fields; computer screens, anti-theft devices and security systems are the main sources of IF fields; and radio, television, radar and cellular telephone antennas, and microwave ovens are the main sources of RF fields.

These fields induce currents within the human body, which if sufficient can produce a range of effects such as heating and electrical shock, depending on their amplitude and frequency range.

Mobile telephones, television and radio transmitters and radar produce RF fields. These fields are used to transmit information over long distances and form the basis of telecommunications as well as radio and television broadcasting all over the world.

Microwaves are RF fields at high frequencies in the GHz range. In microwaves ovens, we use them to quickly heat food. Heating is the main biological effect of the electromagnetic fields of radiofrequency fields. In microwave ovens this fact is employed to warm up food. Scientists are actively continuing to research this area.

It is not disputed that electromagnetic fields above certain levels can trigger biological effects. Gaps in knowledge about biological effects exist and need further research especially when countries set their own national standards for exposure to electromagnetic fields.

The Prevention Of Tampering Of The Mobile Device Equipment Identification Number (Amendment) Rules, 2022

The prevention of tampering of the Mobile Device Equipment Identification Number, Rules, 2017 (IMEI Rules 2017 (Pdf)) have been amended w.e.f 26-09-2022 through the prevention of tampering of the Mobile Device Equipment Identification Number (Amendment) Rules, 2022. You can see these IMEI related rules here (Pdf).

Newly inserted Rule 4(1) provides for registration of international mobile equipment identity number (IMEI Number) in India. From January 1, 2023 onwards, all mobile manufacturers in India shall register the IMEI number of every mobile phone manufactured in India with the Indian Counterfeited Device Restriction portal (https://icdr.ceir.gov.in) of the Government of India in the Department of Telecommunications prior to the first sale of the mobile phone.

Similarly, new Rule 4(2) provides that the IMEI number of the mobile phone imported in India for sale, testing, research or any other purpose shall be registered by the importer with the Indian Counterfeited Device Restriction portal (https://icdr.ceir.gov.in) of the Government of India in the Department of Telecommunications prior to import of mobile phone into the country.

Rule 4(2) has become applicable from the date of publication of these amendments in the Official Gazette, i.e. from 26-09-2022.

So mobile manufacturers in India have 3 months to comply with these IMEI Rules 2022 whereas mobile importers are already required to comply with these rules as on date.

If you need any techno legal services in this regard, feel free to contact us. You can also use our online dispute resolution (ODR) portal for online dispute resolution, TeleLaw and other techno legal services.

Cyber Warfare Against India And Its Defenses As Suggested By Visionary Praveen Dalal In 2012

It was the year 2011 when Visionary Praveen Dalal provided his recommendations to Congress govt regarding cyber warfare policy and development of offensive and defensive cyber warfare capabilities by India. However, both Congress and BJP have failed to act upon cyber security of India till September 2022.

Cyber Warfare is a concept that is well known at both national and international levels. In one form or other and in lesser degree or more, Cyber Warfare has been accepted as a reality in the present Cyber World. However, Cyber Warfare concept still haunts the international community and till now we have no dedicated Legal Framework for Cyber Warfare at international level.

Till Harmonised Cyber Warfare Legal Framework emerges, piecemeal efforts would try to fill the void in this regard. Not very late NATO requested Cyber Security cooperation form India. We should not wait for others to develop our own Cyber Warfare Capabilities in India. In fact, Cyber Warfare Policy of India must be urgently formulated and immediately implemented. The same must be part and parcel of India’s National Cyber Security Policy.

Cyber Security in India needs to be strengthened keeping in mind the growing cases of Cyber Attacks and Cyber Espionage attacks against India. Even Cyber Warfare against India is well known and is not new. Ensuring 100% cyber security is next to impossible. However, we can minimise Cyber Attacks. India has remained indifferent towards Cyber Security for long. This resulted in poor Cyber Security Capabilities and Expertise. It is only now that India has paid attention to this crucial field and it is still not too late.

India should definitely step up/accelerate its efforts to strengthen Cyber Security along with Traditional National Security Capabilities. Internet and Hidden Internet has opened new frontiers and unforeseen challenges before India. Internet is increasingly been used to not only propagate Terrorism propaganda but also to recruit new Terrorists.

To tackle Terrorists’ use of Internet, International Cooperation amongst Governments, Organisations, Internet companies and telcos could be helpful. For the time being, Cyber Criminals/Terrorists are one step ahead of various Governments and International Cooperation activities.

New technologies have also caused problems for India. For instance, Voice-over-Internet Protocol (VOIP) is one of the technical challenges that Law Enforcement and Intelligence Agencies across the world are finding difficult to tackle. However, of late strong Encryption usage has emerged as more troublesome that VOIP. Further, VOIP can be intercepted in certain circumstances.

Developing of Cyber Security Capabilities and Expertise is immediately required in India. There is also an urgent need to develop both Preventive and Offensive Cyber Security Capabilities of India. The sooner it is done the better it would be for the National Security of India.

Cyber Warfare Policy Of India As Suggested By Visionary Praveen Dalal In 2011

Cyber warfare is a complicated techno legal conflict of laws field that has remained unresolved for more than two decades. India lacks preventive and offensive cyber warfare capabilities despite strong recommendations in this regard by Visionary Praveen Dalal in 2011. Both Congress and BJP are responsible for this mess and negligence.

Cyber Warfare is a concept that is not clear yet. Some believe that there is nothing like Cyber Warfare as there is no involvement of traditional military actions. Others believe that Cyber Warfare is a reality of the present time and future wars would be fought in Cyberspace. Whatever the opinion may be but it is clear that Nations have to protect their Critical ICT Infrastructures and Strategic Computers from growing Cyber Attacks.

Cyber Warfare and Cyber Terrorism are issues that cannot be taken lightly by any Country. From these threats emerge the necessity of having a robust Cyber Security for Defense Forces in India. These issues are important as they strike at the very root of the Critical ICT Infrastructure Protection in India. However, India is not doing the needful in this regard. Cyber War Capabilities should be an Integral Part of Indian National Defense and Security.

India needs a sophisticated and robust Technological Command Centre to defend its global network of computer systems. It must develop both offensive and defensive capabilities under one roof. Strategic information and tactical inputs are essential part of modern warfare that can be lost or gained through Cyber War methods. There is no doubt that India needs good Cyber War Capabilities to meet the growing threats of Cyber Warfare.

Malware are posing significant threat to India yet there is no attention towards Cyber Security in India. For instance, we need Express Legal Provisions and Specified Policies to deal with issues like Denial of Service (DOS), Distributed Denial of Services (DDOS), Bots, Botnets, Trojans, Backdoors, Viruses and Worms, Sniffers, SQL Injections, Buffer Overflows Exploits, etc. Till now India has done nothing in this crucial direction and we are still waiting for the Cyber Security Policy and Strategy of India. Obviously, we have no Cyber Warfare Policy of India as well. Even the Cyber Law of India is weak and ineffective and deserves to be repealed.

The biggest hurdle before curbing Cyber Warfare Threats at the International level is Lack of Harmonisation in this regard. Till now we have no “Internationally Acceptable Definition” of Cyber Warfare. Further, we have no Universally Acceptable Cyber Crimes Treaty as well. There is also no International Cyber Security Treaty. India is not a part of any International Treaty or Conventions regarding Cyber Crimes, Cyber Security, etc.

We cannot have a Cyber Terrorism Policy in India till we have a Cyber Crimes Policy in India, Cyber Security Policy in India other similar Policies. Indian Government must urgently work in this crucial direction as it is the most urgent need of the hour.

Cyber Warfare Capabilities Must Be Developed In India Opined Visionary Praveen Dalal In 2011

In this interview from 2011, Visionary Praveen Dalal suggested that cyber warfare capabilities of India must be developed on priority basis. However, neither Congress nor BJP had the vision to do so and even in September 2022 this has not been done.

Cyber warfare is not a new term anymore. Although, its exact definition and scope is not clear yet none can deny the role of information warfare in the near future. Even India has also appreciated its importance. The best part is that this appreciation is coming from none other that the Prime Minister of India Dr. Manmohan Singh.

Dr. Manmohan Singh has issued clear directions to National Security Council (NSC) of India to work in the direction of establishment of cyber command authority (CCA) for India. Dr. Singh has also asked for putting in place an action plan before such an authority is set up. Dr. Singh has also rightly deferred the plan to set up CCA till a thorough review of the cyber threat is done.

However, India lacks proper expertise and training to undertake such an ambitious project and establish such an authority. We have a single techno legal cyber security research, training and education centre in India (CSRTCI). Further, we also have a single techno legal cyber security training and educational centre in India managed by Perry4Law Techno Legal Base (PTLB). Now Centre Of Excellence For Cyber Security Research And Development In India (CECSRDI) is maintaining techno legal cyber security issues of global stakeholders.

According to Praveen Dalal, CEO of Perry4Law Organisation (P4LO) and PTLB and Leading Techno Legal Expert of India, Cyber Warfare Capabilities have assumed tremendous importance these days. The future Cyber Warfare would be even more mysterious, anonymous and dangerous. Further, the Indian Government even need not to spend crores of cash for this purpose if it opts for “Open Source” Software, suggests Praveen Dalal.

So the matter boils down to appropriate cyber security policy and adequate techno legal training. Dr. Manmohan Singh must include as many institutions and individuals as possible so that cyber security of India may become robust and effective.

Cyber Law Due Diligence For VPN Service Providers In India

VPN service providers in India are in a tight spot as they have to face legal consequences one way or the other. If they comply with the e-surveillance demands of Indian govt, they would be liable for prosecution for violating privacy, data protection and other rights of Indians.

If they do not comply with such e-surveillance demands of Indian govt, they would be prosecuted by the govt for violating some arbitrary and unconstitutional rules framed by Indian govt. We do not have a constitutionally valid e-surveillance policy of India as on date and there is no intention of either Congress or BJP to do so as well in future.

From 26-09-2022, VPN service providers are required to comply with the data and e-surveillance related provisions of cyber law of India and rules made under it. That carries a host of complicated techno legal regulatory compliance that are not easy to manage. Add the complexities of illegalities and conflict of laws to this situation and VPN service providers in India are in serious trouble.

Many VPN service providers have already pulled physical servers from India as they consider the mandate to collect customer data violative of their privacy and data protection rights. This is a correct assessment to a great extent if the rules are implemented blindly. What VPN service providers in India need is a techno legal cyber law due diligence that can maintain a balance between rights of their customers and demands of Indian authorities.

The best option available to them is to use the online dispute resolution (ODR) portal of Perry4Law Organisation (P4LO) and PTLB. The ODR Portal of India is exclusive techno legal ODR portal of the world that is helping global stakeholders to manage global regulatory and legal compliance, including those from India. This way they would be insulated from both customer and govt side litigation and legal claims as all issues would be filtered through the this ODR Portal.

Starting today, CERT-In will require VPN service providers to collect and maintain customer information including names, email addresses, and IP addresses for at least five years, even after they have canceled their subscription or account. Besides privacy violation, it carries additional burden to ensure data security and cyber security of such data and customers. The VPN and similar businesses would cease to become profitable in India now onwards unless they are managed through a techno legal cyber law due diligence.

Both VPN service providers and their customers can also lodge a complaint or grievance at the ODR Portal of India for violation of their privacy, data security and cyber security. We would investigate the same and take up the matter with concerned authorities or courts.

Any demand for data or details from the VPN service providers of India can be shared with us for techno legal analysis and we would provide a comprehensive and holistic solution for all such demands on a case to case basis.

However, this entire situation has created a difficult situation for VPN service provider of India for another issue. Now customers would not trust them anymore for their private, confidential and sensitive information, data, documents, etc. They have legitimate fears that such VPN service providers can sell them anytime to the govt at the drop of a hat. They would not resist the illegal and unconstitutional e-surveillance demands of Indian authorities.

To be on the safer side, Indian customers must check the terms and conditions, privacy policy, etc of all VPN service providers of India very carefully. If they do not carry strong privacy and data protection mechanisms, just avoid such VPN service providers altogether. The best option is to incorporate the ODR Clause of ODR Portal Of India and consult it whenever a demand is raised by any Indian authority.

It must also be kept in mind that proposed Indian Telecommunication Act, 2022 would further make the lives of VPN service providers and their customers more miserable. This proposed law is not only creating severe conflict of laws in cyberspace but it is also enforcing e-surveillance, eavesdropping and spying capabilities of Indian govt and its agencies in an unrestricted and unreasonable manner.

While many VPN service providers have already pulled their servers from India yet other VPN companies are looking for solutions that have minimal impact on their users while also maintaining their privacy. As stated above, there is just one solution and that runs through the ODR India Portal of P4LO.

E-Surveillance Policy Of India Is Needed Opined Visionary Praveen Dalal In 2011

Concept and use of e-surveillance in India is not new and concerns about it were raised even in 2011 by Visionary Praveen Dalal. However, both Congress and BJP are super interested in excessive e-surveillance, spying and civil liberties violation activities and abusing powers in India. The Criminal Procedure (Identification) Act, 2022 and proposed Indian Telecommunication Act, 2022 have made the intentions of Indian Govt very clear in this regard.

India has no E-Surveillance Policy and Legal Framework. This is despite the fact that many Indian projects are so e-surveillance oriented that they cannot pass the scrutiny of provisions of Indian Constitution. We urgently need an e-surveillance policy of India, opined Visionary Praveen Dalal in 2011.

India has launched projects like Aadhar, National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID), Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems (CCTNS), National Counter Terrorism Centre (NCTC), Central Monitoring System (CMS), Centre for Communication Security Research and Monitoring (CCSRM), etc. Except Aadhaar, none of them is governed by any Legal Framework and none of them is under Parliamentary Scrutiny. Even Aadhaar Act is Unconstitutional and it must be struck down by a 7 Judge Bench of Supreme Court of India.

If this was not enough the sole Cyber Law of India (Information Technology Act 2000) was amended through the Information Technology Amendment Act 2008. The IT Act 2008 made the Cyber Law of India an “unregulated and unaccountable” piece of E-Surveillance Legislation. It is now wide open to misuses by Indian Government and its Agencies. Further, the IT Act 2008 also violated various provisions of Indian Constitution and hence is “Unconstitutional” as well.

Parliament of India has been increasingly abdicating its “Constitutional Duties” of Parliamentary Oversight and Law Making. The way Indian Executive takes decisions on behalf of Indian Parliament is really surprising. Some have validly questioned the very purpose and existence of Parliament of India.

We have been suggesting that E-Surveillance Projects like NATGRID must be suitably regulated and they must comply with Civil Liberties Protection Requirements. The Home Ministry of India did not pay heed to these suggestions and now a stage has reached where NATGRID Project may become redundant. So is the status of NCTC.

India has been imposing Projects like NATGRID and Aaadhar on false pretexts of National Security and Welfare Schemes. However, this is not the truth. As far as Aaadhar Project is concerned, it is an Endemic E-Surveillance Project. Projects like NATGRID must reconcile National Security interests with Protection of Fundamental Rights.

India must formulate an E-Surveillance Policy as soon as possible that is not only constitutional but that must also protect civil liberties of Indians in cyberspace and real life says Visionary Praveen Dalal.

Cyber Security Breach Disclosure Norms Are Still Not Implemented In India Since 2014

Cyber security lapses and lack of cyber security expertise in India are exposed on daily basis in India since 2014. However, even in September 2022, cyber security is in a real bad condition. We have lack of dedicated and effective laws on cyber law, cyber security, etc on the one hand and unconstitutional and privacy violating activities of Indian govt on the other.

If this critical condition is not enough, the all is well attitude of Indian govt and Indian stakeholders completes the cycle. It does not matter at all in India if stakeholders do not follow the cyber security rules under the Information Technology Act, 2000. This all is well attitude fills in the cyber security skills and expertise gap in India.

This nexus between Indian govt and other Indian stakeholders is so strong that even if an individual reports any privacy violation, data breach, cyber attack or any cyber security vulnerability, neither CERT-In nor Indian govt takes any action.

Public spirited individuals and cyber security experts are discouraged from reporting cyber security breach incidences as that serves well and protects the status quo of insecure Indian cyberspace. The Digital India project itself suffers from lack of regulatory framework and procedural safeguards.

Visionary Praveen Dalal cautioned successive Indian govts since 2010 about unconstitutional Aadhaar, privacy violating activities, poor cyber law and missing cyber security law, pathetic cyber security of India, e-surveillance and many more issues. Neither Congress nor BJP did anything in this regard till September 2022.

But Perry4Law Organisation (P4LO) and PTLB have launched many good and effective techno legal projects to strengthen Indian cyberspace. These projects ensure privacy protection, data protection, data security, cyber security, civil liberties protection in cyberspace, management of conflict of laws in cyberspace, etc.

P4LO and PTLB also launched world renowned projects for online dispute resolution (ODR), e-courts, TeleLaw, etc to ensure digital empowerment of Indians and global stakeholders. ODR Portal of India has been helping global stakeholders in managing their techno legal regulatory and compliance requirements.

Stakeholders who are actually interested in managing regulatory and compliance in fields like cyber law, cyber security, privacy protection, data protection, internet intermediary compliance, social media compliance, cyber security breach disclosures, etc can contact ODR India Portal to handle the same on their behalf.

All Is Well Attitude Towards Cyber Security Of India Would Be Fatal Warns Visionary Praveen Dalal

India is a sitting duck in cyber security field and there is no doubt about that. Whether it is Congress or BJP, no political party paid the required attention to cyber security of India. Even when any govt tried to do so, industry and businesses have successfully pushed back a proactive cyber security system in India.

For instance, MSMEs of India are still not ready to comply with CERT-In’s cybersecurity rules. The India SME Forum wrote a letter to the govt seeking the 25-09-2022 deadline extension. Even if Modi govt does not allow such an extension, there would not be any material difference in this regard as hardly anybody reports cyber security breaches in India in any case.

From banks to directors of Indian companies, nobody takes cyber security breach reporting seriously. Telecom companies are worst affected as they actively harbour cyber criminals and cyber fraudsters who are exploiting their infrastructure without any fear and legal liabilities.

Authorities like Delhi Police are themselves useless as they lack technical capabilities and expertise to handle technology related crimes. Govt portals are just show pieces with no actual utility. You can report something there but no actual action is ever taken by such portals and authorities handling them. RBI Ombudsman is dead and there is no accountability of Indian banks to ensure robust cyber security for banking systems.

Similarly, Indian banks cannot even keep their servers up and running and expecting them to have secure systems is naive. RBI has done just lip service in this regard and online banking and digital payments are insecure in India. Bank customers are without any remedy except the one provided by Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) Portal of Visionary Praveen Dalal. ODR Portal of India is the only portal that is providing techno legal assistance to global stakeholders.

This all is well attitude for cyber security of India has persisted for almost two decades and no political party has the wisdom to bring the required and necessary changes. We have already lost a great deal of money in India to cyber criminals but the real damage is not even reported in media.

Monetary loss is just one aspect and other more dangerous and complicated aspects would be faced by India very soon. This all is well attitude would prove fatal to India in near future warns Visionary Praveen Dalal.

But if you are a serious player and you love India and its interest, contact ODR India Portal for your complete techno legal regulatory and compliance requirements in India and other jurisdictions. We would manage your cyber security, cyber law, digital evidencing, cyber forensic and many more techno legal regulatory and compliance needs.

Perry4Law Organisation (P4LO) and PTLB are managing the exclusive techno legal Centre of Excellence for Digital India Laws and Regulations in India (CEDILRI) since 2016. It is helping ODR India Portal to manage global techno legal regulatory and legal compliance of global stakeholders. Stay on the right side of law and contact ODR India Portal today for your techno legal regulatory and compliance needs.

Online Dispute Resolution For Digital Payment Frauds And Unauthorised Money Retention In India

With the increase in use of digital payments, cyber crimes and cyber frauds have increased tremendously in India. There are only few options available to Indians to report such cyber crimes and cyber frauds. Even lesser are the options to avail of appropriate remedies and get back the stolen money.

While it is good that India is pushing for digital payments yet lack of strong and stringent cyber law and cyber security laws would make this exercise counter productive. Digital payment system of India must be trustworthy, transparent, fair and customer friendly. There must be a well established dispute resolution mechanism in place so that customer disputes can be resolved effectively and efficiently.

India has currently adopted a model where banks and digital payment service providers have to establish an internal grievance redressal mechanism. Anybody who has dealt with such a system is aware that it is nothing more than a formality and customers rarely get any remedy or solution out of that redundant and obsolete model. Even Ombudsman system of RBI has become dysfunctional and is of little help except exerting moral pressure upon guilty banks and financial institutions.

The ODR India Portal of Visionary Praveen Dalal launched a nation wide test to check if RBI and cyber cells in India can handle cyber crimes, cyber frauds and banking frauds. Both RBI and cyber cells failed miserably and ODR Portal of India seems to be the only hope.

Equally bad is the cyber security preparedness of banks, telecom companies and Indian govt. Passing buck to each other and putting all blame upon the victim is the official strategy of Indian govt, banks, RBI, etc. That is why ODR India Portal is helping Indian customers to get their money back as soon as possible.

In order to get best results, bank customers must be vigilant and cyber aware. They must report all cyber crimes and cyber frauds to the banks and financial institutions as soon as possible. If the reporting is done within few hours of the occurrence, chances of recovery of full money are very bright. The more they delay in reporting, the lesser are the chances of getting back full money and only partial amount can be recovered.

This is where the ODR Portal of India becomes very important. Once a customer has informed his/her bank or financial institution, he/she can safely approach ODR India Portal. We would guide him/her about the entire procedure and would stay connected with him/her till the end. Twitter is also used to communicate and interact between various stakeholders involved in the case.

If a customer needs our help to approach the bank or financial institution for reporting purposes, we can help in that situation too. Cyber crime or cyber fraud victims can contact us in any of the mode, i.e. e-mail, chat, Twitter, etc.

Once the contact with concerned bank or financial institution is established and the cyber crime or cyber fraud has been duly reported, the customer can file an ODR Request at ODR India Portal. Include all details and information along with your ODR Request and we would contact back for additional documents and information, if any. Do not forget to add crucial details like mobile number, e-mail id, address, ID proof, communication with the bank and other Indian authorities, etc. That would result in faster processing of your request and better results.

After the ODR Request is filed, we would include all stakeholders in the request .i.e. customer, bank, ODR India Portal, Indian authorities, RBI, etc. Stakeholders would be added as per need basis and some would be added initially while others may be added as we proceed to recover back your money.

A stakeholder can file ODR Request for multiple purposes. It may be an online banking fraud or ATM fraud or credit/debit card cloning/fraud or any other fraud or crime. It can include digital payments frauds of any type or even when the money was initially obtained legally and at the instance of the stakeholder but its subsequent refund is not facilitated in a timely manner.

For instance, if you have purchased something from an e-commerce website and the promised product is not up to the mark, you may insist for a refund. If the e-commerce company fails to refund back the amount as per Indian laws, you can file an ODR Request at the ODR Portal of India to get back your money. We would ensure your money is paid back as soon as possible.

Similarly, there may be a case where the transaction is declined but your money is debited. If it is not refunded back in time, you can use the ODR Portal of India to get it back urgently.

There may be cases where banks or financial institutions may have deduced money from your account on some pretext and without your consent. You can use the ODR India Portal to get back that money.

There may be cases where the goods or services are not as promised and you may wish to get back the money for which defective good or services were provided. You can use the ODR India Portal to get back that money or to obtain qualitative and agreed upon goods or services.

These are just few examples and there may be many more situations where digital payment frauds and illegal money retention could be involved. Just use the ODR India Portal and we would make it sure that you would get justice and your money back.

We resolve all disputes online within a maximum period of 3 month. In most cases, they are resolved within a week time and 3 month is the outer limit that is seldom required. Our costs are also very reasonable and are directly proportional to the amount involved. This would not create any monetary pressure upon the user of our portal.

Both registration at the ODR India Portal and its services are absolutely free as part of our Access To Justice (A2J) and Justice For All initiatives. We only charge nominal Administrative Cost so that the wonderful services of ODR India Portal can continue to exist for global stakeholders.

Do not remain a moot spectator to the illegalities and unreasonableness of any person or institution and fight for your rights with the help of ODR India Portal.